Creating two-dimensional layered Zintl phase by dimensional manipulation of the crystal structure Carbon nanotubes have successfully been made into a variety of nanoscale circuit components, including transistors, inverters, and switches. Now, a pair of scientists has made a rough, yet promising, flash memory device out of carbon nanotubes. The device is a long way from a finished, marketable product, but it nonetheless represents a significant step in the drive to incorporate carbon nanotubes into mainstream electronics. “Unlike similar devices that have been made, which use carbon nanotubes but can only operate at very low, very impractical temperatures, our device displays impressive long-term information retention characteristics at room temperature,” said lead researcher Jiyan Dai, a physicist at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, to PhysOrg.com. “This indicates that mainstream carbon nanotube-based flash memory devices are a real possibility.”Flash memory devices are currently used to store data in many types of electronic items, including digital cameras, USB memory sticks, and cell phones. Flash memory is considered a “non-volatile” form of memory, meaning it can retain data without a constant supply of power.A typical flash memory device stores information within a grid of transistors called cells. Each cell consists of three layers: a “control gate” compound and a “floating gate” compound separated by a thin layer of an insulating oxide compound. When a voltage is applied to the cell, electrons build up as negative electric charge in the floating gate. At a certain threshold of charge, the floating gate is considered closed and the cell is thought to have a value of “0.” When the charge drops below that level, the gate is open and the cell has a value of “1.” In this way, each cell is able to hold one bit of information (there are eight bits in one byte). Dai and co-researcher X.B. Lu created their flash memory device using carbon nanotubes as the charge-storage layer. As described in a paper in the online edition of Applied Physics Letters, they embedded the nanotubes in a compound made of the elements hafnium, aluminum, and oxygen, abbreviated HfAlO, which serves as both the control gate and the oxide layer. This carbon-nanotube “sandwich,” with each layer only several nanometers in thickness, sits on a substrate of silicon. Dai and Lu determined the charge-retention characteristics of the device by measuring, first, its capacitance (how well it stores electric charge) as a function of the voltage applied across it. They also measured how well the device held onto its charge as time elapsed, from fractions of a second up to nearly three hours. They found that the short-term charge retention wasn’t excellent. During the first couple of minutes, the “memory window” — the voltage range over which the device can retain information — became narrower, a property that is not desirable for flash memory devices. However, over the long term, the memory window remained at a value of about 0.5 V.“We believe that the excellent long-term charge-retention characteristics of our device are due to the unique structure and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes,” said Dai.Citation: “Memory effects of carbon nanotubes as charge storage nodes for floating gate memory applications,” Applied Physics Letters 88, 113104 (2006)By Laura Mgrdichian, Copyright 2006 PhysOrg.com Explore further Citation: Carbon Nanotubes with a Memory (2006, April 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2006-04-carbon-nanotubes-memory.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. This image shows (a) the schematic structure of the flash-memory device and (b) a transmission electron microscope image of the device´s layered structure (the carbon-nanotube layer is labeled as “CNT”).
Guy and Cyril N?gre of MDI stand with the AirPod. Image credit: MDI. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. For the time being, MDI is looking forward to getting the AirPod to market. In early 2010, the company plans to begin producing one AirPod per hour at its first assembly line at Carros, France, and working toward setting up three more assembly plants. The company also hopes that the city of Nice may be interested in using AirPods in a rental car program similar to the one planned for Paris, and possibly in other crowded European and Asian cities.More information: http://mdi.lu/englishvia: IEEE Spectrum© 2009 PhysOrg.com The Nčgres have been working on pneumatic-propelled engines since the early ’90s, when they formed MDI. The latest generation of this technology uses a simpler engine than its predecessors, and the company got a boost in 2007, when Tata Motors bought the Indian rights to MDI’s technology. But MDI’s efforts to bring a short-distance sedan to market turned in a different direction in January 2008, when the mayor of Paris announced plans to purchase thousands of city cars to be rented out by the hour. MDI created the small AirPod to compete with the electric and other vehicles in the contest to become the city car of Paris.The Nčgres think that the AirPod has certain advantages over electric vehicles in the city car market, including its short fueling time and its long-lasting carbon fiber pressure tank, in contrast to expensive batteries that eventually wear out and need to be replaced. MDI estimates that the AirPod will cost about €6000 ($9,000). However, not everyone agrees that the AirPod will live up to these expectations. MDI sent their performance specs to IEEE Spectrum, which had some concerns with the company’s claims. In their analysis, IEEE Spectrum estimated that the AirPod’s range could be less than a third of what MDI has claimed, due to energy being wasted in the process of expanding the air before it is sent to the engine.Some automotive engineers think that compressed air is simply not a practical power source for vehicles due to the laws of thermodynamics. They point out that the AirPod’s 200-liter tank doesn’t carry much more energy than one liter of gasoline. In the IEEE Spectrum, two engineers, Denis Clodic of the Ecole des Mines de Paris and Pascal Higelin of the University of Orléans, said that pneumatic hybrids (vehicles that combine compressed air and fuel combustion) are promising. But they worry that, if MDI’s AirPod fails, the entire concept of compressed air might suffer from the negative experience. Nissan’s new concept car ‘feels like flying’ (w/ Video) Citation: Car That Runs on Compressed Air Questioned by Critics (w/ Video) (2009, November 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-11-car-compressed-air-critics-video.html (PhysOrg.com) — As electric cars begin breaking into the short-distance vehicle market, one French company thinks that it has an alternative to the electric vehicle: a car that runs on compressed air. Motor Development International (MDI), located near Nice, France, unveiled its bubbly-looking AirPod last year, and has ambitious plans to begin manufacturing the car by early 2010. But some of its critics think that’s a bold claim that will be extremely difficult to realize, especially considering that the company has yet to bring a car to market despite several past attempts. Explore further The AirPod is the creation of father-son team Guy and Cyril Nčgre, the president and R&D coordinator of MDI, respectively. At 220 kilograms, the vehicle runs on 80 kilograms of air compressed to 350 bars (or 350 times the atmospheric pressure at sea level). It has a top speed of 28 mph (45 kph) and an estimated range of 137 miles (220 km). According to the company, it takes about three minutes to fill the tank, using just 1.5 euros of electricity. The driver steers the car with a joystick, and two passengers can sit in the back seat, facing backward. The only direct exhaust from the car is very cold air.
More information: Moribund Ants Leave Their Nests to Die in Social Isolation, Jürgen Heinze, Bartosz Walter, Current Biology, Volume 20, Issue 3, 249-252, 28 January 2010. DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2009.12.031 Explore further © 2010 PhysOrg.com Citation: Ants die alone, protecting their nest mates from infection (2010, February 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-02-ants-die-infection.html Ant Temnothorax unifasciatus. Image: Antweb.org (PhysOrg.com) — Scientists studying ants have discovered that when they are seriously ill they voluntarily go away from the nest to die, which reduces the chances of them passing their infection to nest mates. Scientists Jurgen Heinze and Bartosz Walter, from the University of Regensburg, Germany were interested in reports in ants, cats, dogs, elephants, and occasionally in humans, that some dying individuals would leave their homes to die away from their companions. Since the phenomenon happens only occasionally, it is difficult to study quantitatively.Heinze and Walter reared a colony of ants (Temnothorax unifasciatus) in the laboratory, and then exposed them to spores of a parasitic fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) that kills ants. They discovered that most infected worker ants deserted the nest in the hours or even days before they died and made their way to a distant foraging area, where they died alone, away from the other workers. They left voluntarily, and were not forcibly removed by other worker ants. It is known that fungi can manipulate behavior. For example, ants infected by a cordyceps fungus will climb to the top of a stem, rather like zombies, and will die there, allowing the fungus spores leaving the body to spread more widely from the higher vantage point. To eliminate this possibility, the researchers exposed other ants to 95% CO2, which considerably reduces their life expectancy. They found that affected ants also left the nest to die, even though they had not been infected by the fungus. In observing ant colonies, they also saw the same behavior in ants dying from unknown causes. This shows that ants actively removed themselves from the nest voluntarily and broke off social interactions with the other ants regardless of the cause of their imminent death.The act of removing themselves from the nest when death seems imminent may reduce the chance of infection spreading to other ants. Similar behaviors are seen in other social insects. The bumblebee, for example, is also known to leave the hive when it is infected by fly larvae, but in this case the bee is moving into a colder temperature, which would reduce the lifespan of the larvae and might save its own life, as well as lowering the chance of infection to other members of the hive.The findings of the study are reported in the journal Current Biology. Scientists: Ants have internal pedometer This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Explore further © 2013 Phys.org Scientists have known for some time that the emerald cockroach wasp has special abilities that allow it to survive – it stings a cockroach twice, once to stun it, and then again to make it docile and then lays an egg on its leg that eventually hatches and bores its way into the hosts body. The larva then lives out its life inside the cockroach, using it as both cradle and food source. Now it appears, the wasp larva has a special ability of its own.The researchers cut out a small section of the side of a parasitized cockroach and installed a small window. This allowed them to watch the larva inside as it went about its business. They were surprised to find that the larva spewed a liquid out of its mouth and then used it to cover the insides of its host before eating. Their curiosity piqued, the researchers examined the liquid more closely. They found that it contained micromolide and mellein – substances that are known to work as antibacterial agents.Cockroaches are obviously very dirty little bugs and they harbor all manner of viruses, bacteria and fungi. One bacterium commonly found on many species is Serratia marcescens – it’s particularly lethal to wasps; for a larva to live inside a cockroach would require some degree of sanitizing. To address the problem, nature has provided the larva with the means of creating its own disinfectant, which also serves as a preservative – no bacteria, no rotting.The team also tested the effectiveness of the antibiotic fluid, dousing bacterial cultures with samples and found it killed off a wide variety of bacteria. They also collected cockroaches in the wild, comparing those that had been parasitized with a larva and those that had not. Those with larva in them showed evidence of the bacterial compound created by the larva, while those that were not parasitized, did not, proving that larva were in fact the source of the antibacterial agents. More information: Larvae of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa sanitize their host, the American cockroach, with a blend of antimicrobials, PNAS, Published online before print January 7, 2013, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1213384110 . http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/01/02/1213384110.abstractAbstractFood resources contaminated with spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms pose severe problems to all higher organisms. Here, we describe a food-hygienic strategy of the emerald cockroach wasp Ampulex compressa. The wasp larvae develop on and inside the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, a host that can harbor various putrefactive microbes, as well as human and insect pathogens. From P. americana, we isolated the Gram-negative bacterium Serratia marcescens, which is a potent entomopathogen that can rapidly kill insect larvae. It is also known as a food contaminant and as an opportunistic human pathogen. Using behavioral observations and chemical analyses, we demonstrated that A. compressa larvae impregnate their cockroach hosts from inside with large amounts of an oral secretion containing a blend of γ-lactones and isocoumarins with (R)-(-)-mellein [(R)-(-)-3,4-diydro-8-hydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin] and micromolide [(4R,9Z)-octadec-9-en-4-olide] as dominant components. We fractionated hexane extracts of the secretion and investigated the antimicrobial properties of the fraction containing the lactones and isocoumarins, as well as of synthetic (R)-(-)-mellein and micromolide, against S. marcescens and a Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus hyicus, in broth microdilution assays. The test fraction inhibited growth of both tested bacteria. The activity of the fraction against S. marcescens was explained by (R)-(-)-mellein alone, and the activity against S. hyicus was explained by the combined action of (R)-(-)-mellein and micromolide. Our data suggest that the specific combination of antimicrobials in the larval secretion provides an effective frontline defense against the unpredictable spectrum of microbes that A. compressa larvae may encounter during their development inside their cockroach hosts. (Phys.org)—A team of German researchers has discovered that emerald cockroach wasp larva create a disinfecting clear liquid solution in their mouths that they spit out and use to disinfect their food before eating. This is especially important the team notes in their paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, because the larva live inside the body of a cockroach. Ampulex compressa, commonly called Emerald Cockroach Wasp. Pictured in Dar es salaam, Tanzania. Credit: Muhammad Mahdi Karim, Wikipedia Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences A real-life zombie story in the life of bugs This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Researchers discover wasp larva disinfect their food before eating (2013, January 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-01-wasp-larva-disinfect-food.html
Kashmir scientists clone rare cashmere goat The bucardo (Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica) was a sub-species of mountain ibex that lived in the Pyrenees—its numbers had been dwindling for years due to a number of factors, including a changing environment and hunting by humans. The last known survivor was a goat named Celia—she was killed by a tree falling on her—but not before researchers took tissue samples and froze them in liquid nitrogen. The hope was that as technology improved, eventually, cells from the samples could be used to clone new goats and thus resurrect the species.The first attempt to clone a new burcardo was tried in 2003, but failed. Just one goat survived to term and it died of lung complications just after birth. In this new effort, the researchers plan to try to clone several of the goats, and if successful, to consider reestablishing the species. If successful it would be the first “de-extinction” of any organism.In this new attempt, (to be paid for by the hunting club) the researchers will remove the nucleus of the DNA from several of the frozen tissue cells, and then insert them into embryos of a close goat relative (after its nucleus has been removed). The embryo, if viable, will then be implanted in the womb of a female goat, and hopefully carried to term.There is a question as to whether cells that have been frozen (at -321F) for 14 years are still viable. There is also the problem of how to bring back the species if the cloning works out as planned—all of those born would female. One approach might be to mate such a female with a close ibex relative and then over successive generations, breed in burcardo traits, while breeding out the other goat traits. Another approach might be to use a bio-engineering technique that causes female embryos to grow into male offspring—a technique that has met with some success in test mice. Citation: Researchers in Spain to attempt to clone extinct mountain goat (2013, November 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-11-spain-clone-extinct-mountain-goat.html Plate 22 (Spanish Tur) from the book ‘Wild oxen, sheep & goats of all lands, living and extinct’ (1898) by Richard Lydekker. From a sketch by Joseph Wolf in the possession of Lady Brooke. The ram in the foreground was killed in the Val d’Arras. Credit: Joseph Wolf / Wikipedia Explore further © 2013 Phys.org More information: via BBC (Phys.org) —A team of researchers in Spain, with the Centre for Research and Food Technology of Aragon, has signed an agreement with the Aragon Hunting Federation (which they announced to the press) to begin testing the possibility of cloning a mountain goat that went extinct back in 2000. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
© 2014 Phys.org Citation: Climate scientist proposes extremely cold 2014 winter link to global warming (2014, May 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-05-climate-scientist-extremely-cold-winter.html Jet stream shift ‘could prompt harsher winters’ Credit: Larisa Koshkina/public domain (Phys.org) —Tim Palmer, a climate scientist and professor at the University of Oxford in the U.K. has published a somewhat controversial Perspective piece in the journal Science. In it, he theorizes that heavy thunderstorms in the western tropical Pacific (due to global warming) this past winter caused changes to the flow pattern of the jet stream, which resulted in the “polar vortex” that chilled the northern part of North America for the first four months of 2014. More information: Record-breaking winters and global climate change, Science 23 May 2014: Vol. 344 no. 6186 pp. 803-804. DOI: 10.1126/science.1255147AbstractJust when it looked like spring was arriving this year, the U.S. Midwest slipped back into winter, and Detroit recorded its snowiest season ever (see the photo). Has global warming gone into reverse, or could human emissions of greenhouse gases actually be responsible for this particular record being broken? Although the chances of cold winters can in general be expected to decrease with global warming, climate change linked to the particular circulation patterns that have prevailed in the past decade or so could have played an important role in this record-breaking winter. Journal information: Science Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The winter of 2014 was cold in the U.S., of that there was no doubt. Subzero temperatures became the norm and heating bills skyrocketed. At the time, very few who experienced it were blaming it on global warming, but that may very well have been the cause anyway, Palmer suggests—despite the fact that global temperatures haven’t been rising lately.The western Pacific ocean, he suggests, is pulling heat in and holding on to it—that’s why global temperatures haven’t been increasing. That heat in the ocean, he adds, resulted in the generation of more thunderstorms in the western Pacific, releasing heat into the atmosphere (and creating powerful typhoons). That infusion of heat, he continues, caused ripples to form in the jet stream, and it was those ripples that caused the cold weather in the northern U.S.Meteorologists generally agree that the cold weather wasn’t due to it just being colder, it was because parts of the jet stream plunged south carrying arctic temperatures with it—areas north of the jet stream are typically very cold, while those below it are warm. It was those same conditions that led to a very wet Europe as the jet stream wobbled back and forth, generating storms in the Atlantic, dropping massive amounts of water as the sea gave way to land.Despite the cold winter, Palmer’s theory doesn’t suggest future cold winters will be the norm. Instead, he maintains, it was just a one-off—El Niño is due, and it will almost certainly lead to a release of a lot of the heat the ocean has been holding onto, which would mean warmer winters are coming, not colder.Interestingly, Palmer’s theory results in the same outcome as another recent theory presented by Jennifer Francis of Rutgers University—she believes cold snaps like the one this past winter are due to melting Arctic ice, leaving less heat reflected back into the atmosphere and thinning the jet stream and at times causing it to wobble. Others suggest global warming had nothing to do with the chilly winter—it was just climate temperature variability, as happens now and then.
The Fungal World. Credit: Siiri Jüris ja Leho Tedersoo Citation: Researchers collect soil samples from around the globe in effort to conduct fungi survey (2014, November 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-11-soil-samples-globe-effort-fungi.html Journal information: Science (Phys.org)—A large team of researchers with members from around the world has conducted a global survey of soil fungi by collecting thousands of soil samples from sites all around the world. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes their survey, how they performed DNA analysis on the specimens they found, and what they learned in doing so. David Wardle and Bjorn Lindahl of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences offer a Perspectives piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. Explore further More information: Global diversity and geography of soil fungi , Science 28 November 2014: Vol. 346 no. 6213 . DOI: 10.1126/science.1256688ABSTRACTFungi play major roles in ecosystem processes, but the determinants of fungal diversity and biogeographic patterns remain poorly understood. Using DNA metabarcoding data from hundreds of globally distributed soil samples, we demonstrate that fungal richness is decoupled from plant diversity. The plant-to-fungus richness ratio declines exponentially toward the poles. Climatic factors, followed by edaphic and spatial variables, constitute the best predictors of fungal richness and community composition at the global scale. Fungi show similar latitudinal diversity gradients to other organisms, with several notable exceptions. These findings advance our understanding of global fungal diversity patterns and permit integration of fungi into a general macroecological framework. Up till now, the team notes, research looking into biological diversity has focused much more on plants and animals that live on the surface of the Earth, which quite naturally are easier to study. Much less work has been done to better understand what goes on beneath, particularly regarding very tiny organisms. In this major undertaking, the team of researchers sought to learn more about fungi by collecting soil samples from sites across the planet. In all, they collected approximately 15,000 soil samples from 365 sites which included every continent, save Antarctica—most were from forested areas. The samples were then tested to see which types of fungi might be living in them. For that, pyrosequencing DNA analysis was used, which led to the generation of 25 million sequences. Putting all the information in a database allowed the team to find patterns.One of the most striking patterns they found was that fungi diversity is not related to aboveground plant diversity, instead, it’s mostly driven by weather conditions, tied mainly to rainfall. The second driver appeared to be pH level in the soil and calcium concentrations. They noted that diversity was highest around the equator and that the richness of fungi in the soil did not tend to decline with latitude as much as aboveground plants, though it did decline more than many experts had predicted, which might mean changes to theories that are based on the idea of constant fungus distribution.The work done by the team will undoubtedly lead to a better understanding of belowground biodiversity, but as the team notes, their work only involved a very small percentage of places where fungi reside, which suggests many more such surveys will need to be conducted before a complete picture of fungi diversity can be made. © 2014 Phys.org Researchers offer taphonomic degradation processes for mammalian hair This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Explore further Meeting climate targets may require reducing meat and dairy consumption Researchers for the two groups report that they conducted an extensive review of production numbers released by the largest meat and dairy producers and used those numbers to calculate greenhouse gas emissions. They note that very few of the largest meat and dairy corporations offer emissions data and that those that do fail to include data regarding the supply chain. They suggest further that the supply chain in the industry typically accounts for up to 80 percent of greenhouse gas emissions—it typically includes emissions from activities related to growing crops as well as methane emitted directly from livestock.The researchers also report that a very large share of meat and dairy production occurs in just a few regions: Argentina, Brazil, the U.S., the European Union, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. They also claim that five of the biggest meat and dairy corporations are already responsible for more greenhouse gas emissions than BP, ExxonMobil or Shell. They further claim that their analysis of the industry showed that approximately 80 percent of the global allowable greenhouse gas emissions budget would be taken up by just the meat and dairy industry by 2050, if production is not reduced. The researchers conclude their report by suggesting that soon there will be no choice—if we are to curb greenhouse gas emissions to meet targets set by agreed upon protocols, meat and dairy production will have to be greatly reduced. Citation: Study suggests meat and dairy industry on track to surpass oil companies as biggest greenhouse gas emitters (2018, July 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-07-meat-dairy-industry-track-surpass.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Estimated global greenhouse gas emission (GHG) targets to keep within a 1.5°C rise in temperature compared to emissions from global meat and dairy production based on business-as-usual growth projections. Credit: Emissions impossible Researchers at the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy and GRAIN have released a report titled “Emissions impossible – How big meat and dairy are heating up the planet.” The report is a discussion regarding an analysis the groups did on the impact the meat and dairy industries have on global warming. One of their major findings is that large meat and dairy corporations are set to overtake large oil companies as the largest emitters of greenhouse gases. In the report, the researchers also suggest that it is time to expand the field of corporations that get the major share of attention surrounding global warming. They make the case that that meat and dairy producers have flown under the radar for years, and that now, the time has come to include them. © 2018 Phys.org
On display were stunning saris, scarfs and yardages, prepared with unique cotton and silk blends, using organic dying techniques. The offerings were solid colors, woven patterns and printed yardages/saris/etc.There was also a display of unique application of Indian art and craft in other mediums such as lifestyle fabrics, presented by the Talana Studio of Peter D’scoli. In an effort to present the work of visionary artist who have been able to save endangered craft by giving them a modern application, also showcased was Anamika Khanna’s pioneer work.The event also presented modern style interpretation of saris to introduce fresh ideas to consumer on their adaptations.Products available at the show combined ancient textile techniques with highly contemporary design, colour and materials. Unbleached khadi cotton fabrics, tussar silks and the unique Garbh Reshmi cotton silk fabric of Maheshwar had featured at the show.
FIFA on Tuesday rejected an appeal by former US prosecutor Michael Garcia against the handling of his inquiry into alleged corruption around the Russian and Qatar bids for the 2018 and 2022 WCs. A FIFA appeal committee ruled that the request made by Garcia was “not admissible.” It also turned down complaints by two people who gave evidence to Garcia’s inquiry that their cover had been blown by FIFA’s actions. Garcia, who spent 18 months probing the WC votes won by Russia and Qatar in 2010, had complained a summary of his report released by FIFA’s top judge Hans-Joachim Eckert was “incomplete and erroneous.” Eckert said in a summary of Garcia’s report the inquiry had not uncovered evidence of corruption and there should be no re-vote. The judge also reaffirmed FIFA’s insistence that the full Garcia report could not be released to protect the identities of some people named by the inquiry.